Science - Year 10

Science Overview

Term 1: B4 Bioenergetics (& B2 Organisation -plant tissues)

In this section we will explore how plants harness the Sun’s energy in photosynthesis in order to make food. This process liberates oxygen which has built up over millions of years in the Earth’s atmosphere. Both animals and plants use this oxygen to oxidise food in a process called aerobic respiration which transfers the energy that the organism needs to perform its functions. Conversely, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen to transfer energy. During vigorous exercise the human body is unable to supply the cells with sufficient oxygen and it switches to anaerobic respiration. This process will supply energy but also causes the build-up of lactic acid in muscles which causes fatigue.

  1. End of topic assessment c.40 mins
Anaerobic

Relating to or requiring an absence of free oxygen.

Aerobic

Relating to or denoting exercise taken to improve the efficiency of the body's cardiovascular system in absorbing and transporting oxygen.

Energy

Power derived from the utilisation of physical or chemical resources, especially to provide light and heat or to work machines.

Debt

Owing something

Oxygen

Oxygen is an element with the chemical symbol O and atomic number 8. Oxygen is a very reactive element that easily forms compounds such as oxides. Under standard temperature and pressure conditions two oxygen atoms join to form dioxygen (O2), a colourless

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless gas found in our atmosphere. Its chemical formula is CO2, which means it is one carbon atom bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is a waste product in our bodies, and is also produced by burning fossil fuels.

Recovery

A return to a normal state of health, mind, or strength.

Concentration

In chemistry, the number of molecules or ions in a given volume of a substance, expressed as moles of solute per litre of solution (molarity).

Metabolism

The complex of physical and chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes.

Nutrition

Nutritional Science is the study of the effects of food components on the metabolism, health, performance and disease resistance of human and animals. It also includes the study of human behaviors related to food choices.

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Term 1: C4 Chemical changes 1st half

Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organising their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the Earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’.

  1. End of topic assessment 40 mins
Chemical change

Relating to a reaction in which the products have different names and formulas to the reactants.

Physical change

Relating to chemicals not changing formula or name, only state or appearance.

Electron

Negatively charged sub-atomic particle with negligible mass.

Oxidation

The loss of electrons or the gain of oxygen to an element or compound.

Reduction

The gain of electrons or the loss of oxygen to an element or compound.

Carbon reduction

Using Carbon to remove oxygen from an element or compound. Often used in metal extraction. E.g. Iron oxide and Carbon react together to form Carbon dioxide and Iron.

Electrolysis

The use of electricity to split a compound into it's constituent elements.

Electrode

Usually a rod made out of carbon or metal that is used to form a positive/negative charge in a liquid during electrolysis.

Inert

Synonym for unreactive.

Metal ore

A rock containing metal compounds, used to extract metals.

Neutralisation

When an acid and alkali react together to form a salt and water.

Ionic equation

A chemical equation in which only the ions which are involved in the reaction are included.

Symbol equation

A chemical equation in which the symbols for all reactants and products are included.

Word equation

A chemical equation in which all the names of the reactants and products are included.

State

Chemical state refers to whether a substance is solid, liquid. gas or aqueous.

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Term 1: P2 Electricity

building on prior knowledge, students will learn about the theory and application of electric circuits. This will include series and parallel circuits,resistance, and energy transfers. They will also be asked to investigate resistance in a wire. Units may be taught in rotation.

  1. End of topic assessment 40 mins
Electrical conductor

A material that allows current to flow through it easily, and has a low resistance.

Electrical insulator

A material that does not allow current to flow easily, and has a high resistance.

In series

If components in a circuit are on the same loop.

In parallel

If some components are on separate loops.

Energy

Power derived from the utilisation of physical or chemical resources, especially to provide light and heat or to work machines.

Current

A flow of electricity which results from the ordered directional movement of electrically charged particles.

voltage

An electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts.

Electron

A stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.

Resistance

A property of a component, making it difficult for charge to pass through, in ohms (Ω).

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Term 2: P7 Magnetism and electromagnetism

Students will consider how electromagnetic effects are used in a wide variety of devices. Engineers make use of the fact that a magnet moving in a coil can produce electric current and also that when current flows around a magnet it can produce movement. It means that systems that involve control or communications can take full advantage of this.

  1. End of topic assessment c.40 mins
Electromagnet

A soft metal core made into a magnet by the passage of electric current through a coil surrounding it.

Attraction

The electric or magnetic force that acts between oppositely charged bodies, tending to draw them together.

Repulsion

The force that acts between bodies of like electric charge or magnetic polarity, tending to separate them.

Current

The time rate of flow of electric charge, in the direction that a positive moving charge would take and having magnitude equal to the quantity of charge per unit time: measured in amperes.

Magnetic flux density

The strength of a magnetic field.

Magnetic field

Region in which magnetic materials feel a force.

Motor

Machine that changes electrical energy into kinetic energy through the process of the motor effect

Solenoid

Long coil of wire. Has the same shaped magnetic field as a bar magnet.

Commutator

The device on a motor that reverses the current in the coil every half a turn so that the motor keeps spinning in one direction.

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Term 2: B5 Homeostasis

Students will consider the fact that cells in the body can only survive within narrow limits. They require a constant temperature, pH and a constant supply of dissolved food and water. In this section we will explore the nervous system and how it can bring about fast responses. We will also explore the hormonal system which usually brings about much slower changes. Hormonal coordination is particularly important in reproduction since it controls the menstrual cycle. An understanding of the role of hormones in reproduction has allowed scientists to develop not only contraceptive drugs but also drugs which can increase fertility.

  1. End of topic assessment 40 mins
Homeostasis

The tendency towards a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.

Vasodilation

The widening of blood vessels.

Hypoglycaemia

Abnormally low blood sugar levels

Vasoconstriction

The narrowing of blood vessels.

Receptor

A sensor that detects a stimulus.

Gland

An organ that secretes hormones.

Stimulus

A change in a condition that the body can detect.

Response

A corrective change that brings the bodily condition back to the normal level.

Effector

A neuron or organ that brings about a corrective change

Hypothermia

An abnormally low body temperature.

Hormone

A chemical messenger that travels in the bloodstream.

Glucagon

A hormone which acts to increase blood sugar levels.

Insulin

A hormone which acts to lower blood glucose levels

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Term 2: C4 Chemical changes 2nd half & C5 Energy changes

Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organising their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the Earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’. Students will also consider that energy changes are an important part of chemical reactions. The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic.

  1. End of topic assessment 40 mins
Oxidation

Reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen.

Current

Flow of electric charge, in amperes (A).

Conduct

In science, conduct means to serve as a channel. For example, water and most metals will conduct electricity.

Reduction

The gain of electrons or the loss of oxygen to an element or compound.

Electrolysis

The use of electricity to split a compound into it's constituent elements.

Electrode

Usually a rod made out of carbon or metal that is used to form a positive/negative charge in a liquid during electrolysis.

Inert

Synonym for unreactive.

Ionic equation

A chemical equation in which only the ions which are involved in the reaction are included.

Half equation

A chemical equation that represents either the oxidation or reduction of an element/compound in a reaction. Two half equations can be combined to form an ionic equation.

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Term 3: B6 Inheritance, variation and evolution

Students will discover how meiosis produces unique offspring, how gene mutations occur continuously and on rare occasions can affect the functioning of organisms both positively and negatively. In turn we will critique the theory of evolution whilst understanding the idea of survival of the fittest. We will also investigate cloning and genetic engineering.

  1. End of topic assessment 20 mark
Gene

A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

Inheritance

The genetic characters transmitted from parent to offspring, taken collectively.

Asexual

(reproduction) Not involving the fusion of gametes.

Sexual

Of, relating to, or involving the union of male and female gametes.

reproduction

The production of offspring by a sexual or asexual process.

Selection

A process in which environmental or genetic influences determine which types of organism thrive better than others, regarded as a factor in evolution.

Breeding

The mating and production of offspring by animals.

Mutation

The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form which may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes.

Evolution

The process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth.

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Term 3: C6 Rate and extent of chemical change & C8 Chemical Analysis

C6 Building on prior knowledge students will study the factors that affect the rate of a reaction. C8 Students will study the different ways we can separate chemical substances. This will include a practical investigation on chromatography. Units may be taught on rotation.

  1. 20 mark assessment
Reversible

(of the effects of a process or condition) Capable of being reversed so that the previous state is restored.

Activation energy

The amount of energy reactant particles require in order to collide successfully and form the product(s) of a reaction.

Irreversible

Not able to be undone or altered.

Reactant

A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.

Reaction

A chemical process in which substances act mutually on each other and are changed into different substances, or one substance changes into other substances.

Product

A substance that is formed when two or more chemicals react. When a chemical reaction takes place, a new substance is often created from the atoms or molecules of the original substances. There are often multiple products formed in a reaction.

Chromatography

The separating of the components of a mixture based on their solubility.

Analyse

Examine (something) methodically and in detail, typically in order to explain and interpret it.

Collision

When two particles hit each other.

Successful collision

A collision between reactant particles which results in products being formed.

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Term 3 and 4: P5 Forces

Engineers analyse forces when designing a great variety of machines and instruments, from road bridges and fairground rides to atomic force microscopes. Anything mechanical can be analysed in this way. Recent developments in artificial limbs use the analysis of forces to make movement possible. Units may be taught on rotation.

  1. End of topic assessment 20 mark for part 1 and 20 mark for part 2
Air resistance

The force on an object moving through the air that causes it to slow down (also known as drag).

Balanced

Forces acting on an object that are the same size but act in opposite directions.

Extension

The amount by which an object gets longer when a force is applied.

Gravity

A non-contact force that acts between two masses.

Mass

The amount of matter (particles) a thing is made up of.

Newtonmeter

A piece of equipment used to measure force in newtons.

Non-contact force

A force that acts between objects that are not touching.

Unbalanced

When forces on an object are opposite and unequal.

Upthrust

The force on an object in a liquid or gas that pushes up.

Weight

The amount of force with which gravity pulls something towards the Earth.

Resultant force

The overall force on an object, thinking about direction.

Acceleration

Speeding up.

Deceleration

Slowing down.

Stationary

Not moving, still.

Constant speed

Same speed, not getting faster or slower.

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Term 4: C3 Quantitative chemistry

Building on prior knowledge of the periodic table students will study how to interpret chemical reactions in terms of quantities of reactants.They will be taught how to use the periodic table to predict the outcomes of chemical reactions. Units may be taught in rotation.

Chemical reaction

A change in which a new substance is formed.

Periodic table

Shows all the elements arranged in rows and columns.

Chemical properties

Features of the way a substance reacts with other substances.

Element

A substance made out of only one type of atom.

Chemical change

Relating to a reaction in which the products have different names and formulas to the reactants.

Reactant

A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.

Product

A substance that is formed when two or more chemicals react. When a chemical reaction takes place, a new substance is often created from the atoms or molecules of the original substances. There are often multiple products formed in a reaction.

Compound

A thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture

Chemical formula

Shows the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions.

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Term 4: B7 Ecology

Students will consider the Sun as a source of energy that passes through ecosystems. Materials including carbon and water are continually recycled by the living world, being released through respiration of animals, plants and decomposing microorganisms and taken up by plants in photosynthesis. All species live in ecosystems composed of complex communities of animals and plants dependent on each other and that are adapted to particular conditions, both abiotic and biotic. These ecosystems provide essential services that support human life and continued development. In order to continue to benefit from these services humans need to engage with the environment in a sustainable way. In this section we will explore how humans are threatening biodiversity as well as the natural systems that support it. We will also consider some actions we need to take to ensure our future health, prosperity and well-being.

  1. End of topic assessment c.40 mins
Food web

Shows how food chains in an ecosystem are linked.

Organism

An individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.

Food chain

A series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.

Pyramid of biomass

A pyramid of biomass is a better diagram to use. A pyramid of biomass shows the total mass of organisms at each stage of a food chain. In general, all producers have a higher biomass than the primary consumer, so a pyramid will always be produced.

Waste

(of a material, substance, or by-product) Eliminated or discarded as no longer useful or required after the completion of a process.

Excretion

(in living organisms and cells) The process of eliminating or expelling waste matter.

Egestion

The act or process of discharging undigested or waste material from a cell or organism; specifically : defecation.

Decomposition

The state or process of rotting; decay.

Niche

The function or position of a species within an ecological community. A species niche includes the physical environment to which it has become adapted as well as its role as producer and consumer of food resources.

Quadrat

Each of a number of small areas of habitat, typically of one square metre, selected at random to act as samples for assessing the local distribution of plants or animals.

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Term 5: Revision in Biology, Chemistry and Physics

Students will prepare for the year 10 mock papers by revising the units taught to them in year 9. Relevant year 10 units are to be revised for homework.

  1. Combined Science: Trilogy Paper 1's in Biology, Chemistry and Physics. Each 1h15 and 70 marks.
Gaseous Exchange

The movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of the leaf

Acceleration

Increase in speed or rate

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless gas found in our atmosphere. Its chemical formula is CO2, which means it is one carbon atom bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is a waste product in our bodies, and is also produced by burning fossil fuels.

Activation energy

The amount of energy reactant particles require in order to collide successfully and form the product(s) of a reaction.

Chemical formula

Shows the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions.

Biodiversity

The variety of living things. It is measured as the differences between individuals of the same species, or the number of different species in an ecosystem.

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Term 6: B1 Cell Biology

In the final term of the year students will build on prior knowledge of Biology Combined Science; B1 cells. Students following the Trilogy science pathway will be introduced to a higher level of demand. Those who are continuing with the separate science route will go on to learn about culturing microorganisms and investigating the affects of antiseptics on bacterial growth.

  1. There will be no formal assessment at the end of Term 6, a grade will be estimated on the mock paper alongside the years performance.
Bone marrow

Tissue found inside some bones where new blood cells are made.

Nucleus

A dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material.

Cell Membrane

The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.

Gene

A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

Cell Wall

A layer lying outside the cell membrane that provides structure to plant, fungi and bacteria cells.

Bacteria

Bacteria are microscopic living organisms, usually one-celled, that can be found everywhere. They can be dangerous, such as when they cause infection, or beneficial, as in the process of fermentation (such as in wine) and that of decomposition.

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Term 6: P1 Energy

In the final term of the year students will build on prior knowledge of Physics Combined Science; P1 cells. Students following the Trilogy science pathway will be introduced to a higher level of demand. Those who are continuing with the separate science route will go on to learn about factors affecting thermal insulation.

  1. There will be no formal assessment at the end of Term 6, a grade will be estimated on the mock paper alongside the years performance.
Force

Something which changes the shape of objects and changes the way they are moving.

Conservation of energy

A fundamental principle of physics: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only stored, transferred or dissipated. This means that the total energy of a closed system is constant.

Electrical

Concerned with, operating by, or producing electricity.

Elastic potential

Elastic potential energy is Potential energy stored as a result of deformation of an elastic object, such as the stretching of a spring. It is equal to the work done to stretch the spring, which depends upon the spring constant k as well as the distances

Gravitational

Movement towards or attraction to something.

Electron flow

The electrical resistance of a circuit component or device is defined as the ratio of the voltage applied to the electric current which flows through it.

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Term 6: C1 Atomic structure and the periodic table

In the final term of the year students will build on the prior knowledge of Chemistry Combined Science; C1 Atomic structure and the periodic table.Trilogy students will be introduced to a higher level of demand. Those who are continuing with the separate science route will go on to learn about the chemical and physical properties of transition metals.

  1. There will be no formal assessment at the end of Term 6, a grade will be estimated on the mock paper alongside the years performance.
Nucleus

Contains genetic material (DNA) which controls the cell's activities.

Periodic table

Shows all the elements arranged in rows and columns.

Atom

The basic “building block” of an element which cannot be chemically broken down.

Conservation of energy

A fundamental principle of physics: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only stored, transferred or dissipated. This means that the total energy of a closed system is constant.

Electron

Negatively charged sub-atomic particle with negligible mass.

Activation energy

The amount of energy reactant particles require in order to collide successfully and form the product(s) of a reaction.

Chemical bond

Force that holds atoms together in molecules.

Isotope

Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

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